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  • kmitov 6:41 am on June 5, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , , , ,   

    Yet another random failing spec 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    This article is about a random failing spec. I spent more than 5 hours on this trying to track it down so I decided to share with our team what has happened and what the stupid mistake was.

    Random failing

    Random failing specs are most of the time passing and sometimes failing. The context of their fail seems to be random.

    Context

    At FLLCasts.com we have categories. There was an error when people were visiting the categories. We receive each and every error on an email and some of the categories stopped working, because of a wrong sql query. After migration from Rails 6.0 to Rails 6.1 some of the queries started working differently mostly because of eager loads and we had to change them.

    The spec

    This is the code of the spec

     scenario "show category content" do
        category = FactoryBot.create(:category, slug: SecureRandom.hex(16))
        episode = FactoryBot.create(:episode, :published_with_thumbnail, title: SecureRandom.hex(16))
        material = FactoryBot.create(:material, :published_with_thumbnail, title: SecureRandom.hex(16))
        program = FactoryBot.create(:program, :published_with_thumbnail, title: SecureRandom.hex(16))
        course = FactoryBot.create(:course, :published_with_thumbnail, title: SecureRandom.hex(16))
    
        category.category_content_refs << FactoryBot.create(:category_content_ref, content: episode, category: category)
        category.category_content_refs << FactoryBot.create(:category_content_ref, content: material, category: category)
        category.category_content_refs << FactoryBot.create(:category_content_ref, content: program, category: category)
        category.category_content_refs << FactoryBot.create(:category_content_ref, content: course, category: category)
    
        expect(category.category_content_refs.count).to eq 4
        visit "/categories/#{category.to_param}"
    
        find_by_xpath_with_page_dump "//a[@href='/tutorials/#{episode.to_param}']"
        find_by_xpath_with_page_dump "//a[@href='/materials/#{material.to_param}']"
        find_by_xpath_with_page_dump "//a[@href='/programs/#{program.to_param}']"
        find_by_xpath_with_page_dump "//a[@href='/courses/#{course.to_param}']"
    
      end

    We add a few objects tot he category and then we check that we see them when we visit the category.

    The problem

    Sometime while running the spec only 1 of the objects in the category are shown. Sometimes non, most of the time all of them are shown.

    The debug process

    The controller

    def show
      @category_content_refs ||= @category.category_content_refs.published
    end

    In the category we just call published to get all the published content that is in this category. There are other things in the show but they are not relevant. We were using apply_scopes, we were using other concerns.

    The model

      scope :published, lambda {
        include_contents.where(PUBLISHED_OR_COMING_WHERE_SQL)
      }

    The scope in the model makes a query for published or coming.

    And the query, i kid you not, that was committed in 2018 and we’ve had this query for so long was

    class CategoryContentRef < ApplicationRecord
       
        PUBLISHED_OR_COMING_WHERE_SQL = ' (category_content_refs.content_type = \'Episode\' AND (episodes.published_at <= ? OR episodes.is_visible = true) ) OR
         (category_content_refs.content_type = \'Course\' AND courses.published_at <= ?) OR
         (category_content_refs.content_type = \'Material\' AND (materials.published_at <= ? OR materials.is_visible = true) ) OR
         category_content_refs.content_type=\'Playlist\'', *[Time.now.utc.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")]*4].freeze
    
    end
    

    I will give you a hit that the problem is with this query.

    You can take a moment a try to see where the problem is.

    The query problem

    The problem is with the .freeze and the constant in the class. The query is initialized when the class is loaded. Because of this it takes the time at the moment of loading the class and not the time of the query.

    Because the specs are fast sometimes the time of loading of the class is right before the spec and sometimes there are specs executed in between.

    It seems simple once you see it, but these are the kind of things that you keep missing while debugging. They are right in-front of your eyes and yet again sometimes you just can’t see them, until you finally see them and they you can not unsee them.

     
  • kmitov 3:19 pm on May 31, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , ,   

    When caching is bad and you should not cache. 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    On Friday we did some refactoring at FLLCasts.com. We removed Refinery CMS, which is a topic for another article, but one issue pop-up – on a specific page caching was used in a way that made the page very slow. This article is about how and why. It is mainly for our team as a way to share the knowledge among ourselves, but I think the whole community could benefit, especially the Ruby on Rails community.

    TL;DR;

    When making a request to a cache service, be it MemCachir, Redis or any other, you are making a request to a cache service. This will include a get(key) method call and if the value is not stored in the cache, it will include a set(key) method call. When the calculation you are doing is simple it will take more time to cache the result from the calculation than to do the calculation again, especially if this calculation is a simple string concatenation.

    Processors (CPUs) are really good at string concatenation and could do them in a single digit milliseconds. So if you are about to cache something, make sure that you cache something worth caching. There is absolutely no reason to cache the result of:

    # Simple string concatenation. You calculate the value. No need to cache it.
    value = "<a href=#{link}>Text</a>". 
    
    # The same result, but with caching
    # There isn't a universe in which the code below will be faster than the code above.
    hash = calculate_hash(link)
    cached_value = cache.get(hash)
    if cached_value == nil
       cached_value = "<a href=#{link}>Text</a>". 
       cache.set(hash, cached_value)
    end 
    
    value = cached_value

    Context for Rails

    Rails makes caching painfully easy. Any server side generated HTML could be cached and returned to the user.

    <% # The call below will render the partial "page" for every page and will cache the result %>
    <% # Pretty simple, and yet there is something wrong %>
    <%= render partial: "page", collection: @pages, cached: true %>

    What’s wrong is that we open the browser and it takes more than 15 seconds to load.

    Here is a profile result from New Relic.

    As you can see there a lot of Memcached calls – like 10, and a lot of set calls. There are also a lot of Postgres find methods. All of this is because of how caching was set up in the platform. The whole “page” partial, after a decent amount of refactoring turns out to be a simple string concatenation as:

    <a href="<%= page.path%>"><%= page.title %></a>

    That’s it. We were caching the result of a simple string concatenation which the CPU is quite fast in doing. Because there were a lot of pages and we were doing the call for all of the pages, when opening the browser for the first time it just took too much to call all the get(key), set(key) methods and the page was returning a “Time out”

    Conclusion

    You should absolutely use caching and cache the values of your calculations, but only if those calculations take more time than asking the cache for a value. Otherwise it is just not useful.

     
  • kmitov 9:14 am on May 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: ,   

    “[DOM] Input elements should have autocomplete attributes” 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    This is one of the things that could make a platform better. Here is how the warning looks like in the browser console.

    More information at – https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Attributes/autocomplete

    The autocomplete attributes could allow browsers, extensions and other agents guess what the user should do on this page. It could make it easier for the user. For example an extension could suggest a new password in the field, or could understand to fill the name of the user in the “name” field.

    Additionally we don’t like warnings.

    To check out the behavior, if you have a password manager for example go to

    https://www.fllcasts.com/users/sign_in

    or

    https://www.buildin3d.com/users/sign_in

     
  • kmitov 8:39 am on May 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: csrf, ,   

    [Rails] Implementing an API token for post requests 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    At the BuildIn3D platform we provide clients with API to send certain HTTP POST requests. Questions is – how do we authenticate them.

    Here is one of the authentication steps – we implemented our own build_token. When authenticity_token for CSRF is available we also use the authenticity_token. But it is not always available because the authenticity_token depends on the session and the session cookie. But there might not be a session and a cookie in some cases and yet we still need some authentication. Here is how we do it.

    Generate a Unique encrypted token on the server side

    The server generates a token based on pass params. This could be username or password or other info.

        def to_build_token
          len   = ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor.key_len
          salt  = Rails.appplicaton.secret_build_token_salt
          key   = ActiveSupport::KeyGenerator.new(Rails.application.secret_key_base).generate_key(salt, len)
          crypt = ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor.new(key)
          encrypted_data = crypt.encrypt_and_sign(self.build_id)
          Base64.encode64(encrypted_data)
        end

    This will return a new token that has encrypted the build_id.

    encrypted_data = crypt.encrypt_and_sign(self.build_id)
    # We could easily add more things to encrypt, like user, or some params or anything you need to get back as information from the token when it is later submitted

    Given this token we can pass this token to the client. The token could expire after some time.

    We would require the client to send us this token on every request from now on. In this way we know that the client has authenticated with our server.

    Decryption of the token

    What we are trying to extract is the build_id from the token. The token is encrypted so the user can not know the secret information that is the build_id.

    def self.build_id_from_token token
      len   = ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor.key_len
      salt  = Rails.application.secret_salt_for_build_token
      key   = ActiveSupport::KeyGenerator.new(Rails.application.secret_key_base).generate_key(salt, len)
      crypt = ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor.new(key)
      crypt.decrypt_and_verify(Base64.decode64(token))
    end

    Requiring the param in each post request

    When a post request is made we should check that the token is available and it was generated from our server. This is with:

      def create
          build_token = params.require("build_token")
          build_id_from_token = Record.build_id_from_token(build_token)
          .... # other logic that now has the buid_id token
      end

    The build token is one of the things we use with the IS at BuildIn3D and FLLCasts.

    Polar bear approves of our security.

     
  • kmitov 8:15 am on May 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: ,   

    [Rails] Crawlers you don’t want to cause a notification for an error 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    We are using exception_notification gem. It is great because it will send us a direct email when there is an error on the platform. This means we are not looking at the logs. We get the notification directly on the email.

    But some of the crawlers (like all of them) cause errors, mainly in the cross-origin domain. The JavaScript we are delivering is not allowed for their domain and this generates an error. One way to stop these errors is to ignore errors caused crawlers in the exception_notifcation configuration:

    Rails.application.config.middleware.use ExceptionNotification::Rack,
        ignore_crawlers: %w{Googlebot bingbot YandexBot MJ12bot facebookexternalhit SEMrushBot AhrefsBot},
        :email => {
          :email_prefix => ...,
          :sender_address => ...,
          :exception_recipients => ...
        }

     
  • kmitov 8:05 am on May 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: ,   

    [Rails] Disabling Forgery Protection on API controllers 

    Forgery protection comes for free in Ruby on Rails and is described in the security guide – https://guides.rubyonrails.org/security.html#cross-site-request-forgery-csrf.

    You don’t want forgery protection on some API controllers. If the API controllers extend the ActionController::Base the forgery protection could be disabled in the following way. Here is an example for a controller accepting requests from Amazon AWS SNS.

    class SnsController < ActionController::Base
    
      # Disable it for this controller. 
      # If there is no session it is just null session
      protect_from_forgery with: :null_session
    
      http_basic_authenticate_with :name => ENV["SNS_USERNAME"], :password => ENV["SNS_PASSWORD"]
    
      ...
    end
    

    An even better approach would be not extending from ActionController::Base, but from ActionController::API. But then we would have to include the modules for HttpAuthentication which is a topic for another article.

     
  • kmitov 7:56 am on May 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: ,   

    [Rails] Please use symbols for polymorphic route arguments 

    This error occurred today with our platform. Issue is at https://github.com/rails/rails/issues/42157

    The issue occurs because of a new security patch with with Rails tracked with CVE-2021-22885.

    You can no longer call polymorphic_path or other dynamic path helpers with strings, because if this strings are provided by the user this could result in unwanted router helper calls.

    # previous call
    polymorphic_path([article, "authors"])
    # should now be
    polymorphic_path([article, "authors".to_sym])
    # or better
    polymorphic_path([article, :authors])

    Migration effort

    A perspective on how serious it is to upgrade – tl;dr – it is not – about half an hour.

    All the calls in our platform for polymorphic_path

    $ git grep  "polymorphic_path" | wc -l
    321

    All the file that have calls to polymorphic_path

    $ git grep -l  "polymorphic_path" | wc -l
    143

    Numbers of files that I’ve changed – 13
    Time it took me to review all of them -16 minutes, from 18:24 to 18:40

    Now I am waiting for specs to pass.

    I guess it is not a big change and could be migrate in half an hour. Most of our calls were using symbols already and only about 15 calls from 321 were with strings. These are 4% of all the calls.

     
  • kmitov 5:03 am on April 14, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , ,   

    Rendering plain text from the server is not plain text in the browser 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    One thing that is good to know:

    If you render plain text from a web framework like Rails you will not have plain text in the browser. You will still have HTML in the browser.

    This bite us with one of the RSpec scenarios that we were running and I thought I should share with the team and the whole community.

    IRL

    The real life scenario is the following.

    In the Rails controller we do

    class DigestMessagesController < ApplicationController
        def show
            render plain: "Text"
        end
    end
    

    What we would expect to see in the browser is a simple “Text” text. If fact this is exactly what is returned by the server – you can see in the “Response” tab.

    you can see that the response from the server is just “Text”

    But if you now Inspect the content of the page in the browser you will see that there is HTML inside.

    
    <html>
     <head></head>
     <body>
     <pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap;">Text</pre>
     </body>
    </html>
    

    This HTML was not returned by the framework. This HTML was added by the browser. This is not good because an RSpec system scenario with Capybara will pass with rack_test driver, but will fail with a Selenium driver. rack_test driver will not add this HTML while all the major browsers will add it.

    scenario 'for text' do
          visit "/digest_messages/#{digest_message.id}?preview=plain"
          expect(page.body.to_s).to include("Text")
          # This expect here will fail for Selenium and will pass for rack_test driver.
          expect(page.body.to_s).not_to include("html")
    end
    

    I hope this is helpful and could save you a couple of minutes debugging.

     
  • kmitov 6:28 pm on April 7, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , , , rails-ujs, ,   

    From a ticket to deploy in an hour. jQuery runs the scripts, DOM does not. 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    This is an article of a production incidents with Rails/Stimulus/Rails-ujs/DOM and jQuery.

    We made mistake that made us lose 31 registrations on the FLLCasts and a few more on the BuildIn3D platform. The stack involved includes Ruby on Rails with Rails-ujs, Stimulus, DOM and jQuery. I will enter into some details about how it occurred, why and how we resolved it in under an hour. I am writing this article mainly to share with my our team, but I am sure it could be useful for other teams.

    FLLCasts registration form as of April 2021

    The incident – people could not Sign Up on the platforms

    On the Sign up page there is a captach. Years ago we found our that the captcha helps us reduce invalid registartion.
    There is also one more thing on this platform – usernames. As the FLLCasts platforms is used by students and academies, one of the very useful features on the platform is the automatically generated username. Users type their names in the “Full name” field and a username is automatically generated for them. In this way there is a unique username for users because email is not unique – there could be many users with the same email.

    To generate a new username we send a request to the server and refresh form. We use Stimulus and rails-ujs for this.

    The is an “change->registrations#refreshForm” for the input field for the name. When the full name is changed the form is refreshed and a unique username is returned from the server.

    <%= user_form.fields_for :data, {parent_builder: user_form} do |data_form| %>
      <%= data_form.text_field :name_attribute,
        {
          icon_prepend: "icon-finance-067 u-line-icon-pro",
          autofocus: true,
          data: {
            registrations_target: "name",
            action: "change->registrations#refreshForm"
          },
          autocomplete: "off"
        }
      %>
    
      <%= data_form.email_field :email %>
    <% end %>

    Here is how it should work:

    How the form is supposed to work

    The incident was that when the form was refresh the captcha got lost and we were not showing it after that. This means that on the server we were checking the captcha, but there was not captcha on the client.

    The ticket

    A wild ticket appears from a user.

    Hi,
    
    We wanted to enroll our Kid for Personal B programme and we were trying to Sign Up to pay online , but we are unable to sign up using our details.
    We get an error message though we tried a few times.
    
    Please help to sort this out.
    
    Thanks
    
    Regards

    This is a really wild ticket. The user wants to buy and they can not sign up. 1,2,3 go.

    The problem

    We’ve made the following commit in the registration form

    --- a/app/views/devise/registrations/new.js.erb
    +++ b/app/views/devise/registrations/new.js.erb
    @@ -1 +1 @@
    -$("#<%= @form_id %>").replaceWith("<%= escape_javascript(render 'form') %>")
    \ No newline at end of file
    +document.getElementById("<%=form_id%>").outerHTML= '<%= escape_javascript(render "#{partial_name}") %>';
    \ No newline at end of file

    We are in the process of removing jQuery from the code. I saw this jQueyr call and decided to change it to a simple DOM call. It should be the same, right? No…

    jQuery executes scrips while document.outerHTML does not

    I knew this. But I did not consider it in this commit. What happens is that we receive the new form from the server and replace the form on the page with the new form received from the server that contains the generate username.

    But in this form (and this form only on the whole platform) there is a recaptach. This recaptcha is a JavaScript and when dynamically changing the DOM the JavaScript must be executed. Well, jQuery automatically executed this for us. document.outerHTML does not.

    Developing and RSpec system spec.

    First I deployed the fix to production. It took about 5 minutes.

    After that I developed the spec. This is how the spec looks like:

    scenario "shows recaptach when dynamically reloading the form", js: true  do
        with_recaptcha_enabled do
          visit_sign_up
    
          expect(page).to have_recaptcha
    
          name_field.set unique_name
          email_field.set "#{SecureRandom.hex(16)}@example.com"
    
          # This means we have reloaded with js because we've set the email field 
          # and this has change the focus and there was a fire event for the name_field.
          #
          # We are now waiting for the username to appear on the screen
          expect(page).to have_username_filled
    
          expect(page).to have_recaptcha
        end
      end

    We expect that there is a recaptcha before and after refreshing the form.

    What surprised us

    Looking at the data in the time frame this commit was on production – we’ve received 9 registrations on the platform. In the same previous period we’ve receive 40 registrations.

    This means that we’ve lost 31 registrations on the platform.

    What surprised us is that 9 people managed to register. The only way you could register on the platform during this period is to first enter your username. If you enter the username on your own we do not refresh the form as we don’t have to generate a username for you. This means that about 25% of the people start with their username and about 75% of the users at FLLCasts start the registration with their name or email.

    Good to know. Good to know.

    Conclusion

    Looking at the issue we could have prevented it in a number of ways. In a test environment it is difficult to have a recaptcha because there is no way to test that the recaptcha works. After all that is the whole purpose of a recaptcha – to prevent bots and a Selenium driver is exactly a bot. But it turned out we’ve missed it as a scenario in the specs. It is always a missing spec.

     
  • kmitov 11:45 am on April 2, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: ,   

    The magic of class methods for a Ruby on Rails controller and their configurations 

    Have you used gems that provide class methods for Ruby on Rails controllers that extend these controllers?

    Like the ones below:

    class TutorialsController < ApplicationController
      
      # This is from cancancan
      # It allows to loading and authorizing
      load_and_authorize_resource
      ...
    
      # This is from 'has_scope'. 
      has_scope :pref_order, only: :index, default: "suggested"
      
    end
    

    Today’s article is about how to implement such a method for our own concern.

    My specific case is duplication. I would like to develop a DuplicateResourceConcern that extends the controller and allows users to duplicate a record when they create a new record. This is something we’ve been using at FLLCasts and BuildIn3D for many years, but today I revised the implementation, improved it and decided to share the knowledge in a short article.

    The goal is to be able to do:

    class TutorialsController < ApplicationController
      
      include DuplicateResourceConcern
      enable_duplicate
      ...  
    end

    With this logic when the user:

    1. visits /tutorials/new?resource_to_dup=123
    2. The title field in the form for new tutorial is pre-filled the title of Tutorial 123.

    Declare DuplicateResourceConcern and enable_duplicate

    First we declare DuplicateResourceConcern

    module DuplicateResourceConcern
      extend ActiveSupport::Concern
    
      included do
        before_action :dup, only: [:new]
      end
    
      private
      def dup
        # call the duplication
      end
    
    end

    It is a concern with one method that is ‘dup’

    We use the concern in the TutorialsController

    class TutorialsController < ApplicationController
      
      include DuplicateResourceConcern
      
      def new
      end  
    end

    The method ‘dup’ is a private method of the controller. It is called before the :new action. If a param called ‘resource_to_dup=X’ is passed we would like to duplicate the title of Tutorial X.

    Simple Tutorial duplication

    module DuplicateResourceConcern
      extend ActiveSupport::Concern
    
      included do
        before_action :dup, only: [:new]
      end
    
      private
      def dup
        original_tutorial = Tutorial.find_by_id(params.permit(:resource_to_dup)[:resource_to_dup])
        @tutorial = Tutorial.new(title: original_tutorial.title)
      end
    
    end

    This duplication will work for the Tutorials controller. But it will not work for ArticlesController, because we are doing “Tutorial.find” and we are assigning a @tutorial variable.

    Reusing the DuplicateResourceConcern in a different controller

    To reuse the DuplicateResoureConcern we must call Article.find_by_id when we are in an ArticlesController and Tutorial.find_by_id when we are in a TutorialsController.

    Here is how we could do this using ‘controller_name’, ‘.classify’ and ‘.constantize’. We can get the name of the records from the controller name.

    module DuplicateResourceConcern
      extend ActiveSupport::Concern
    
      included do
        before_action :dup, only: [:new]
      end
    
      private
      def dup
        # This will return Tutorial for TutorialsController
        # and will return Article for ArticlesController
        clazz = controller_name.classify.constantize
    
        # If the controller is called 'tutorials' the instance name will be 'tutorial'
        instance_name = controller_name.singularize
    
        original_instance = clazz.find_by_id(params.permit(:resource_to_dup)[:resource_to_dup])
        duplicated_instance = clazz.new(title: original_instance.title)
    
        # After this call we will be able to access @tutorial in the TutorialsController and @article in the ArticlesController
        instance_variable_set("@#{instance_name}", duplicated_instance)
      end
    
    end

    In this way the DuplicateResourceConcern is not dependent on the type of the object. It could work for Articles and for Tutorials. It is still dependent on the property ‘title’, but I will leave this for now.

    How to configure the duplication

    The name of the parameter in the url should be ‘resource_to_dup’. What if we want to modify this name on the controller level. For example to have a parameter
    resource_to_dup‘ for TutorialsController and
    resource_to_copy‘ for ArticlesController.

    What we want to do is pass an argument with the name of the parameter, but we would have to do a little more work.

    class TutorialsController < ApplicationController
      
      include DuplicateResourceConcern
      enable_duplicate param_name: "my_new_param_name"
      
      def new
      end  
    end

    We would use the class_method for the concerns.

    module DuplicateResourceConcern
      extend ActiveSupport::Concern
    
      included do
        before_action :dup, only: [:new]
      end
    
      def self.included(base)
        base.class_eval do
          extend ClassMethods
          # Declare a class-level attribute whose value is inheritable by subclasses. Subclasses can change their own value and it will not impact parent class.
          # In this way we can extend the class and still have separate configurations
          class_attribute :duplicate_resource_configuration, instance_writer: false
      
          self.duplicate_resource_configuration = {
            options: {
              param_name: "resource_to_dup",
            }
          }
        end
      end
    
      class_methods do 
        # The enable_duplicate method will be called on a class level.
        def enable_duplicate(*args) do
          options = args.extract_options!
          options.symbolize_keys!
    
          # We check that there are only parameters with this names.
          options.assert_valid_keys(:param_name)
    
          # Merge the default options with the options passed in the controller
          self.duplicate_resource_configuration[:options].merge!(options)
    
          # We mark that we've enabled the duplication
          self.duplicate_resource_configuration[:enabled] = true
        end
    
      end
    
    
      private
      def dup
        # This will return Tutorial for TutorialsController
        # and will return Article for ArticlesController
        clazz = controller_name.classify.constantize
    
        # If the controller is called 'tutorials' the instance name will be 'tutorial'
        instance_name = controller_name.singularize
    
        # Param name. We are no longer dependent on 
        # the param name being resource_to_dup. It could 
        # be a different name.
        the_param_name = self.duplicate_resource_configuration[:options][:param_name]
    
        original_instance = clazz.find_by_id(params.permit(the_param_name)[the_param_name])
        duplicated_instance = clazz.new(title: original_instance.title)
    
        # After this call we will be able to access @tutorial in the TutorialsController and @article in the ArticlesController
        instance_variable_set("@#{instance_name}", duplicated_instance)
      end
    
    end

    Extensibility

    This is the basic structure. We can now add more options if we want to and more parameters to the configurations.

    What is the system RSpec for duplication.

    It is simple.

    scenario "/tutorials/new?resource_to_dup can duplicate a resource" do
        tutorial.update(title: SecureRandom.hex(10))
    
        visit "/tutorials/new?resource_to_dup=#{tutorial.id}"
        expect(page).to have_text "Duplicate from #{tutorial.title}"
    
        click_on "Create Tutorial"
        expect(page).to have_text "Tutorial was successfully created."
    
        tutorials = Tutorial.where(title: tutorial.title)
        expect(tutorials.count).to eq 2
      end

     
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