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  • kmitov 6:34 am on April 2, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , databases, , new relic, performance, rails,   

    Resolving a performance issue in a Rails platform. cancancan, New relic, N+1 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    Today’s article is about a performance issue that we had in one of our Rails platforms and how we resolved it. I enter into details of the specific root cause and how New relic was helpful in identifying the issue. This article is mainly targeted for our team, but I hope it would be useful for the community to see a practical example of cancancan and N+1.

    The root cause

    Every time we show a lesson on the FLLCasts platform we show the tutorials and materials of that lesson. But if the user does not have access to a tutorial, because it is not published or it requires a teachers subscription we do not show it in the lesson. We filter it from the lesson.

    We are using cancancan and we’ve added code for checking if every tutorial in the course could be accessed – whether you have the right subscription. This was not a problem on its own. The major problem was that we were showing a navigation of the course on the right that contains links to all the lessons with all the tutorials:

    FLLCasts Course nagivation showing links to all the tutorials
    Show of links to all the tutorials in the whole course in the navigation

    To show the navigation we looped through all the tutorials in the whole course and checked if the user has access to them. It was an N+1. This seems to be working when a course contains < 100 tutorials. But once the courses grew and contained more tutorials the logic got slow.

    People started noticing. We had to increase the number of Heroku dynos from time to time. Especially when a lot of students join and use the platform.

    There were two problems

    1. We don’t need to show all the tutorials and building instructions in the navigation. We just need to show them for the current lesson.
    2. We need to make a singe query to the DB that would get only the tutorials in that lesson and only the tutorials the user has access to.

    What was the performance impact

    During load when a lot of students were using the platform the navigation/_course_section partial was taking 41% of the show lesson request average of 5 seconds. There were about 100 find queries for a single lesson.

    Table with how expensive it was to show the navigation for large courses

    It was taking about 10-15 seconds for the server to respond and sometimes requests were failing.

    Chart showing slow responses
    Responses were slow. > 15 second sometimes.

    On the chart below we see how the moment people start opening courses the time for showing lessons (course_sections) starts growing.

    Chart showing sharp increase
    Sharp increase in time the moment we make requests

    Practically the platform was unusable in this case. Everything stopped.


    Change the navigation to include only the current lesson

    We decided that we don’t need to show all the tutorials from the whole course in the navigation, only the tutorials for the current lessons. This reduced the load because instead of returning 140 tutorials we were returning 20.

    Improve the call to cancancan

    One thing that we’ve missed is a call to cancancan that is can? :show for each record. It has slipped in the years and we haven’t noticed.

    records.each do |record|
       if can? :show, record

    I refactored it to use cancancan accessible_by method.

    @content_refs = @course_section

    and added two new :index rules in the ContentRefs ability. The benefit is that in this way cancancan makes a single query to the db.

    module Abilities
      class ContentRefsAbility
        include CanCan::Ability
        def initialize user
          can :index, ContentRef, { archived: [nil,false], hidden: false}
          can :index, ContentRef, { archived: true, hidden: [true,false], course_section: { authors: { user_id: user.id }}}
          can :read, ContentRef, { archived: [nil,false], hidden: true ,course_section: {course: {required_access_for_hidden_refs: {weight: 0..user_max_plan_weight}}}}

    The third rule is the deal breaker. With it we check if the user has a subscription plan that would allow them to access the content ref.

    With these three rules we allow everybody to see non archive and non hidden content_refs, we also allow authors of the course_section to see archived and hidden content_refs where they are the author of the course_section and we allow allow everybody to see hidden content_refs if they have the proper subscription plan.


    Number of timeouts reduced to from 180 to 6

    jenkins@elvis:/var/log/fllcasts$ grep "Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutException" access.log | wc -l
    jenkins@elvis:/var/log/fllcasts$ zgrep "Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutException" access.log-20210320.gz | wc -l
    jenkins@elvis:/var/log/fllcasts$ zgrep "Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutException" access.log-20210319.gz | wc -l

    Increase in throughout put does not increase the required time

    It does not matter whether we have 1 or 40 rpm for this controller. The time stays the same. Next we can focus on how to make it even faster, but this will do until the platform grows x10

  • kmitov 6:44 am on March 30, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , , , , rails, , ,   

    Dead code and one more way it could hit you back – by being loaded! 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    We can all agree that dead code should be removed. What we sometimes fail to see is how much it could cost to leave dead code with our product. Today’s article is about an example of a “dead code” and how it hit us back 1.5 years after we stopped using it. It took us 3 hours to debug and find the root cause. The conclusion is that we should have done ‘git rm’ an year ago. We did not and the cost was 3 hours.

    This is a real life example article from our code base and it is design to share experience with our team, but I hope the whole community could benefit.

    What happened

    1. Jenkins build failed

    First time we saw it we identified that it is not something serious and it kept failing for a few days until we had time to address it in the next Sprint.

    2. Teaspoon, Jasmine, Bundler, Rails Engines

    In the project there was the production code in Rails.root along with a dummy test code for starting JavaScript specs in Rails.root/test/dummy/. We are using Teaspoon with Jasmine in a Rails engines. Rails engines tend to create a test/dummy folder in which you could put the code for a test app in which you want your JavaScript specs to be executed. The product code is loaded in the test app and specs are executed.

    About 1.5 years ago I did some experiments with this test app and made a few configurations. The goal was to have the production code along with some test app code both loaded in the test environment. In this way Teaspoon and Jasmine would see both the production and the test app code as coming from “production”. I literally remembered what my idea was and what I was trying to achieve. At the end I decided not to use the test app code, but to have only the production code located in Rails.root be loaded in the test environment.

    But I forgot to remove the test app code from test/dummy/app/assets/javascripts/

    3. Teaspoon Error

    The following error occurred. Here “IS” is a JavaScript namespace part of the production code.

    jenkins@vpszap6s:~/jobs/is-core Build and Release/workspace/test/dummy$ xvfb-run -a bundle exec rake teaspoon --verbose
    Starting the Teaspoon server...
    Teaspoon running default suite at
    ReferenceError: IS is not defined

    4. The error and debugging process

    Not sure what the error was exactly I tried to identify the difference between my machine and the server machine where the tests was failing. This server machine is called “elvis”.

    1. Bundler version – my version was 2.2.11 and the elvis version was 2.2.14. Tried with upgrade, but it did not resolve the issue.
    2. Chrome driver – since the tests were executed on chrome I saw the chrome driver versions were different. Mine was 86. elvis was with 89. Synced them, the error was still occurring.
    3. Rake version – rake versions were the same
    4. Ruby version – the same
    5. Teaspoon and Jasmine versions – the same
    6. The OS is the same
    7. I could not find any difference between my env and the elvis env.

    Turns out the problem was in the loading order. elvis was loading test app code and then production code. My machine was loading production code and then test app code. I could not figure out why. The whole test app code was:

    // test/dummy/app/assets/javascripts/ext/dummy/dummy.js 
    IS.Dummy = {};

    The error that was occurring was:

    ReferenceError: IS is not defined

    5. Solution

    I was curious to continue debugging to see why the two machines were loading the code in a different order, but at the end decided against it. Just removed the dead code in test/dummy/app/assets/javascripts/ext/dummy/dummy.js which I only thought as dead, but it turned out it was affecting our project.

    6. Builds passing

    Finally the builds were passing.


    Dead code my not be that dead after all. It might be loaded even if not used and loading order could differ. Better be safe and remove dead code at all. If we need it that much, we have it in the GIT repo history.

  • kmitov 1:34 pm on March 25, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , rails, ,   

    Stimulus 1.1.1 to Stimulus 2.0.0 – practical cost 

    We just migrated Stimulus 1.1.1. to Stimulus 2.0.0 so I decided to share this with our whole team, but I thought this could be useful for the whole community.

    The practical cost is that this migration could be done in a few minutes per Stimulus controller. 10-20 controllers – you should be done in less than a day.

    Overview of the changes

    Here are a few examples of the changes that were committed for a single _form.html.erb


    # app/views/public_users_searches/_form.html.erb
    -            target: "public-users-searches.term",
    +            public_users_searches_target: "term",
    -    <%= f.submit t('public_users_searches.form.search'), data: {target: "public-users-searches.commit", value: t('public_users_searches.form.search')} do %>
    +    <%= f.submit t('public_users_searches.form.search'), data: {public_users_searches_target: "commit", value: t('public_users_searches.form.search')} do %>


    If you are wondering whether you should migrate or not and how much it will cost probably you should migrate. It is not that expensive.

  • kmitov 6:44 am on March 25, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , , rails   

    A practical example for dependency injection 

    In today’s article I am sharing with our team an example I found while reading parts of the code in one of our platforms where we’ve created a form of ‘cyclic’ references with cancancan merges in Rails Controllers. I wondered for a while how we’ve managed to create it, how to avoid creating them in the future and I share this as an example with our team, but I hope the article could be useful for the whole community.

    I see this as a perfect example for the use of Dependency Injection.

    The example

    CourseSectionsAbilities is merged with ContentsAbility which is merged with ContentRefsAbilities which is then merged with CourseSectionAbilities. This means that CourseSectionsAbilities is merged twice and the second merge overrides the first merge.

    class CourseSectionsController < CommonController
      def current_ability
        # This is the first merge 
        # CoruseSectionsAbility is merged with ContentsAbility.
        @current_ability ||= Abilities::CourseSectionsAbility.new(current_user)
    module Abilities
      class ContentsAbility
        include CanCan::Ability
        def initialize user
          # This is the second merge
          # ContentsAbility is merged with ContentRefs ability
          merge ContentRefsAbility.new user
    module Abilities
      class ContentRefsAbility
        include CanCan::Ability
        def initialize user
          # This is the third merge
          # ContentRefsAbility is merged with CourseSectionsAbilily.
          # This overrides the first merge.
          merge CourseSectionsAbility.new(user)

    How did it happen?

    It think it is the classic grow of the code where you solve the problem in the easiest way possible. Initially we had:

    class CourseSectionsController < CommonController
      def current_ability
        # This is the first merge 
        # CoruseSectionsAbility is merged with ContentsAbility.
        @current_ability ||= Abilities::CourseSectionsAbility.new(current_user)

    But then a new requirement about an year after that has come and there is a commit that adds the second merge:

    module Abilities
      class ContentRefsAbility
        include CanCan::Ability
        def initialize user
          # This is the third merge
          # ContentRefsAbility is merged with CourseSectionsAbilily.
          # This overrides the first merge.
          merge CourseSectionsAbility.new(user)

    What is the problem?

    The problem is that there is a class called ContentRefsAbility that can dependent on everything it wants. It can merge anything inside it with any consideration on what was already merged. It can set it’s own dependencies. This couples the ContentRefsAbility with the places it is used. Because we must take into consideration every place where ContentRefsAbility is used before changing it’s implementation.

    How Dependency Injection solves this?

    We pass the ability in the constructor

    module Abilities
      class ContentRefsAbility
        include CanCan::Ability
        def initialize user, outside_ability
          # This is the third merge
          # ContentRefsAbility is merged with CourseSectionsAbilily.
          # This overrides the first merge.
          outside_ability.method1 # we call the method of the outside_ability

    Instead of creating the ability in the class we pass the dependency from the outside. In this way we can control the dependency and choose different dependencies in different conditions.

    The ContentRefsAbility no longer depends on the specific implementation of outside ability, but it depends on the behavior we inject from the outside.

  • kmitov 7:52 am on March 24, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , , , rails, ,   

    We don’t need ‘therubyracer’ and the libv8 error for compiling native extensions 

    This article is about the error:

    Installing libv8 with native extensions
    Gem::Ext::BuildError: ERROR: Failed to build gem native extension.

    and the fact that we don’t need and probably you don’t need therubyracer.

    There are two solutions for the above error:

    # To install libv8 with a V8 without precompiling V8 
    $ gem install libv8 -v '' -- --with-system-v8
    # Or to comment therubyracer in your Gemfile and not to use it.
    # gem 'therubyracer'

    We went for the later. Here are more details

    What is libv8 and therubyracer

    From libv8

    V8 is Google’s open source high-performance JavaScript and WebAssembly engine, written in C++. It is used in Chrome and in Node.js, among others.

    What therubyracer does is to embeds the V8 Javascript Interpreter into ruby.

    In Rails there is the execjs gem used in assets precompilations.

    ExecJS lets you run JavaScript code from Ruby. It automatically picks the best runtime available to evaluate your JavaScript program, then returns the result to you as a Ruby object.


    This means that execjs needs a JS runtime and it uses the one provided by therubyracer, libv8 and V8. But it can use other runtimes as well, like Node.

    What is the libv8 compilation error?

    The libv8 error is because it can not compile V8 on the machine. V8 is developed in C++. To successfully compile it the machine must have all the dependencies needed for compilation. You can try to compile it from scratch or you could use an already compiled one. Compiling from scratch takes time to resolve all the dependencies.

    But we didn’t need therubyracer

    Turns out that in this specific platform we don’t need therubyracer, because we already have Node because of webpacker/webpack and we have it on all the machines and we have it on production on Heroku.

    therubyracer is also discouraged on Heroku –

    If you were previously using therubyracer or therubyracer-heroku, these gems are no longer required and strongly discouraged as these gems use a very large amount of memory.

    A version of Node is installed by the Ruby buildpack that will be used to compile your assets.


    therubyracer is great for starting quickly especially when there is no node. But considering there there was node on all of our machines we just don’t need therubyracer.

    As a result the slug size on heroku was reduced from 210M to 195.9M. No bad. I guess the memory consumption will also be reduced.

    remote: -----> Compressing...        
    remote:        Done: 210M        
    remote: -----> Launching...        
    remote:        Released v5616     
    remote: -----> Compressing...        
    remote:        Done: 195.9M        
    remote: -----> Launching...        
    remote:        Released v5617       

    How did we came about this error?

    Every Wednesday we do an automatic bundle update to see what’s new and update all the gems (of course if the tests pass). This Wednesday the build failed, because of the libv8 error and native compilation.

    It was just an unused dependency left in the Gemfile.

  • kmitov 7:36 pm on February 15, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , rails, ,   

    Usage of ActiveRecord::Relation#missing/associated 

    Today I learned that Rails 6.1 adds query method associated to check for the association presence. Good to know. I share it with the team at Axlessoft along with the community as a whole.

    While reading the article about the methods I thought:

    Are we going to use these methods in our code base?

    I did some greps and it turns out we won’t.

    $ git grep -A 10 joins | grep where.not | grep nil | wc -l

    There is not a single place in our code that we call

    .joins(:association).where.not(association: {id: nil}
    .joins(:association).where(association: {id: nil})

    What does this mean?

    Nothing actually. Great methods. I was just curious to see if we will be using them in our code base a lot.

  • kmitov 7:31 am on February 3, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: rails,   

    Rails after_action order is in reverse 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    We’ve used Rails after_action for controllers twice in our platforms and products. It allows you to execute something after a rails controller action.

    Why? What is the IRL use case?

    Users upload files for a 3D model or building instructions. We want to call an external service to convert this 3D model or buildin3d instructions and we schedule a job. We want to ping this external service. So we make a network request in the controller.

    This is never a good idea. Generally you want to return fast from the call to your controller action. On Heroku you have a 15 seconds time limit to return and as a user experience it is good to return a result right the way and to do your job on the background and to report on the progress with some clever JS.

    But for this specific case we have reasons to try to ping the external service. It generally takes about 0.5-1s, it is not a bottleneck for the user experience, and it works well. Except for the cases when it does not work well.

    Today was such a day. Heroku dynos were trying to connect with the service, but it was taking longer than 15 seconds. I don’t know why. So i decided to revise the implementation.

    What is special about after_action order?

    It is the reverse of before_action.

    We want to call the external service in an after action. In this way it is outside of the logic of the controller method and if it fails, we handle the exception in the after_action. It is a good separation. The real code is:

    module IsBackend::JenkinsWorkoff extend ActiveSupport::Concern
      included do
        after_action do
          unless @jenkins_rebuild == nil || @jenkins_rebuild.running?
              JenkinsClientFactory.force_jobs_workoff timeout: 10
            rescue => e
              config.logger.info e.message

    The issue is with the order of the after_action when they are more then one.

    Generally before_action are executed in the order they are defined.

      before_action do
        # will be first
      before_action except: [:index, :destroy] do
        # will be second

    But after_action are executed in the reverse order

      after_action do
        # will be SECOND
      after_action except: [:index, :destroy] do
        # will be FIRST

    Why? I will leave the PR to explain it best – https://github.com/rails/rails/issues/5464

    How do we use it?

    When building the buildin3d instruction below we’ve pinged the external service in the build process. Because of the after_action we can enjoy this FabBrix dog.

    FabBRIX Pets, Dog in 3D building instructions
  • kmitov 5:30 pm on January 27, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , rails,   

    What is the most complex query that you are comfortable to live with before refactoring? 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    Today I did some refactoring and I again worked with a query that I kind of never got to refactor and it is the most “complex” query that we seem to be comfortable with in our platforms because other queries are improved, but this one stays the same. This does not mean that it is not understandable or not maintainable, it is just the most “complex” we seem to be comfortable with, because any more complex than this and we naturally think about refactoring it.

    This got me thinking.

    What are other real life examples for the most complex relation database queries others are comfortable enough to live with before thinking about changing the model or the scheme.

    Is my threshold too low or too high?

    I would be happy to learn more from you.

    Here is the query (Active Record) in question:

    Get all the references for 'Tasks' that are in CourseSections that are in Courses
    and filter all of them through the translations they have
    These are 8 tables (ContentRef, Task, CourseSection, Course, and 4 translation tables)

    # Get all the references for 'Tasks' that are in CourseSections that are in Courses 
    # and filter all of them through the translations they have
    # These are 8 tables (ContentRef, Task, CourseSection, Course, and 4 translation tables) 
      includes(course_section: [course: [:translations]]).
      where(courses:{id: course_ids }, content_type: "Task").
      select("content_refs.*, course_translations.*, course_section_translations.*, task_translations.*")
    # The models is
    Content Ref 
      belongs_to CourseSection
      belongs_to Task
      has_many :translations
      belongs_to Course
      has_many :translations
      has_many :translation
      has_many :translation
  • kmitov 4:58 pm on January 25, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: liquid, rails   

    How we use Liquid template language? (part 1) 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in a README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    In FLLCasts and BuildIn3D platforms we use three template languages. ERB (as it is all Rails), Liquid and Mustache. This article gives a brief overview of how we are using and extending Liquid in our platforms. The main purpose is to give an overview for newcomers to our team, but I hope the developers community could benefit from it as a whole.

    What is Liquid?

    Quoting directly from the site

    Liquid is an open-source template language created by Shopify and written in Ruby. It is the backbone of Shopify themes and is used to load dynamic content on storefronts.


    You create a template, you feed it values, it produces a result:

    @template = Liquid::Template.parse("hi {{name}}") # Parses and compiles the template
    @template.render('name' => 'tobi')                # => "hi tobi"

    Why Liquid?

    Short answer – I thought: “It is good enough for Shopify so It should be useful for us”

    With so many template engines it really is an interesting question why would we use Liquid.

    When I made the decision years ago I was facing the following problem.

    How to give admins the ability to create email templates where they write the id of an Episode. Before the email is sent, the template should evaluate what the title of this Episode is and fill it in the HTML.

    The problem with Episode titles was the following. An author creates an Episode and sets the title to “Line following with LEGO Mindstorms”. An admin prepares a message for all users that the new “Line following with LEGO Mindstorms” tutorial is released. While the admins prepare the email and include the title of the tutorial in the Email, the title of the tutorial is changed to “Line following with LEGO Mindstorms EV3” by the author. So we end up with two titles of the tutorial. One in the email, and one on the site. This happens with Pictures also.

    We are sending regular emails to subscribed users. As we are sending the emails I wanted to give the opportunity for admins to create a template of the email and then when the email is sent, the template is evaluated. The solution was to give admins the ability to create a “digest_message” in the platform and to fill this digest message with template values. Like for example:

    Hello, {{ user.name }},
    This is what we recommend you start with:
    {% episode = Episode.find(1) %}
    {{ episode.title }}
    {{ episode.destroy SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED}}

    This was my goal. To get an instance of Episode, but without all the dangerous methods like “.destroy”. As admin I should still be able to call “episode.title”, but I should not be able to call “episode.destroy”.

    This was how we started with Liquid. This was the first time we needed.

    How do we use Liquid?

    The code above is close to Liquid, but it is not Liquid. You can not use Episode.find(1) in Liquid and this is good. I don’t want this method to be available for admins to write in the emails. Because they could also write other, more dangerous methods.

    Liquid gave us the solution – Liquid Drops


    The idea of Liquid::Drop is that you get a real object and you can call this object real methods while the template is evaluated. Here is our Episode drop

    module LiquidDrops
      class EpisodeDrop < Liquid::Drop
        def initialize episode
          @episode = episode
        def title
        def description
        def published_at
          @episode.published_at.strftime('%d %B %Y')

    Here is how we use this drop in a Liquid Template.

    {% assign episode = episodes.1189 %}
    {% assign title = episode.title %} 
    {% assign description = episode.description %}
        {{ title }}
      <p> {{ description }}</p>

    As you can see we get an instance of episode 1189 and we can then call this instance some specific methods. Like episode.title or episode.description. This is not the real ActiveRecord object for Episode. This is a new instance that is wrapping the ActiveRecord object and is delegating specific methods to it. Liquid would only call methods that are available in the Drop.

    The tricky part is to tell Liquid that it should connect ‘episodes.1189’ with the specific Drop class. We pass the drops as a context to template.render as:

    @drops['episodes'] = LiquidDrops::EpisodesDrop.new
    template = Liquid::Template.parse(template_content)
    result = template.render(@drops)

    In this way I’ve managed to solve our first challenge. Allow admins to write emails that can dynamically, when rendered, get the current name of the Episode without giving them access to more dangerous methods like Episode#destroy. I could have easily used ERB, but Liquid was such a good fit. It was designed exactly for this and Shopify were using it for their themes.

    Screenshot and life example

    If you register to FLLCasts (https://www.fllcasts.com) you will receive a couple of emails and all of them use Liquid.

    If you don’t want to subscribe here is a screenshot from a recently sent email for a new Course.

    Example from an email that was rendered with Liquid

    You see the picture, title and description. These are all evaluated and added to the HTML with the use of Liquid.


    This concludes the first part of this articles. In the next parts I will take a look at how we build Filters and Tags and how and why do we use them.

  • kmitov 7:10 am on January 20, 2021 Permalink |
    Tags: , rails   

    ‘bundle update’ – why we run it regularly and automatically to update our dependencies? 

    (Everyday Code – instead of keeping our knowledge in an README.md let’s share it with the internet)

    Today it’s Wednesday and on Wednesday we have an automatic Jenkins job that would run ‘bundle update’. This will be 567-th time this build is run. It has saved us a lot of work and this article I would like to share why and how we automatically do ‘bundle update’

    What is ‘bundle update’?

    In the Ruby and Ruby on Rails world the dependencies are called gems. Gems could be installed with the ‘gem’ command. ‘bundle’ is a command provider by the Bundler tool. It automates this process. To quote from the Bundler web site

    Bundler provides a consistent environment for Ruby projects by tracking and installing the exact gems and versions that are needed.

    Bundler is an exit from dependency hell, and ensures that the gems you need are present in development, staging, and production. Starting work on a project is as simple as bundle install.


    With Bundler you can have two different projects working with two different sets of dependencies and Bundler will make sure the right dependencies are available for each project.

    What is ‘$ bundle install’?

    Both FLLCasts and BuildIn3D are Rails platforms. Before starting the platforms we should install all the dependencies. We use Bundler and the command is

    $ cd platform/
    $ bundle install

    ‘$ bundle install’ will make sure that all the gems that we are dependent on are available on our machine.

    FLLCasts and BuildIn3D for example are dependent on:

    # FLLCasts Gemfile contains
    gem "rails", '~> 6.0.3'
    gem "webpacker", "~> 5.0"
    gem 'turbolinks', '~> 5.2.0'

    This means that we are happy to work with any version of turbolinks that is 5.2.X. It could be 5.2.0, 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and so on. The last digit could change.

    ‘bundle install’ makes sure that you have a compatible version. But what if there is a new version of turbolinks – 5.2.5?

    What is ‘$ bundle update’?

    ‘$ bundle update’ for me is the real deal. It will check what new compatible versions are released for the gems we depend on. If we are currently using turbolinks 5.2.0 and there is 5.2.1 ‘bundle update’ will check this and will fetch the new version of turbolinks for us to use. It will write the specific versions that are used in the Gemfile.lock.

    For the turbolinks example the Gemfile.lock contains:

    # Gemfile.lock for FLLCasts and BuildIn3D
        turbolinks (5.2.1)
          turbolinks-source (~> 5.2)

    When should one run ‘$ bundle update’?

    That’s a thought question and a hard sale. Every team member on our team has at a certain point asked this question or made a statement like ‘But this is not automatic. I want to update dependencies when I want to update dependencies!” or has in some way struggle with ‘$ bundle update’. Myself included.

    The answer is:

    As the rails and ruby communities are live and vibrant things are improved quite often. One should run ‘$ bundle update’ regularly and one should do it automatically to make sure the dependencies are up to date.

    But updating the dependencies could break the platform!

    Automatic ‘bundle update’ could break any platform?

    Yes. It could. That’s why the are doing

    # Run bundle update
    $ bundle update
    # Commit the new result to a new branch
    $ git push elvis pr_fllcasts_update --force
    # Try to merge the new branch like any other branch. Run merge and then the specs
    $ git merge ...
    $ rake spec (on the merge)
    # If rake is successful continue with the merge. If it is not, then abort the merge. 

    We update and commit the changes to a new Branch (or create a Pull Request, depending on the project), and we then run the normal build.

    It will pull from this Branch (or PR) and will run the specs. If the specs pass successfully we continue with the merge.

    In this way we are constantly up to date

    What is the benefit of automatic ‘$ bundle update’?

    As I’ve written before the main benefit is the allocation of resources and keeping the developers context – https://kmitov.com/posts/the-benefits-of-running-specs-against-nightly-releases-of-dependencies/

    If a change in a gem breaks something that we are dependent on we can identify this in a week. We are not waiting months and we can report it now. The gem owners are probably still in the context of the change they’ve introduced and could faster understand and resolve the issue.

    Additionally we no longer have ‘migrates’ on our team. We are not dedicating any resource to ‘migrating to new dependencies’ as it happens automatically.

    #  Here are just the gems from Jan 13, 2021 7:00:00 AM
    Installing aws-partitions 1.416.0 (was 1.413.0)
    Installing chef-utils 16.9.20 (was 16.8.14)
    Installing autoprefixer-rails (was
    Installing omniauth 2.0.0 (was 1.9.1)
    Installing http-parser 1.2.3 (was 1.2.2) with native extensions
    Installing dragonfly 1.3.0 (was 1.2.1) Installing aws-sdk-core 3.111.0 (was 3.110.0)
    Installing omniauth-oauth2 1.7.1 (was 1.7.0)
    Installing aws-sdk-kms 1.41.0 (was 1.40.0)
    Installing globalize 5.3.1 (was 5.3.0) Installing money-rails 1.13.4 (was 1.13.3)

    Every Wednesday we update the gems and if there are problems we know at the middle of the week to be able to address them at the moment or to schedule them appropriately for the next weeks.

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